Facilitating the protection and restoration of species and ecosystems at risk on BC’s South Coast
Snout to vent length: 2.2-5.1 cm (females larger). Adult and juveniles are variable in colour, ranging from light brown, tan, grey-green to charcoal. Lighter coloured individuals may have irregular dark spots on back. The skin is covered with minute bumps giving the frog a ‘pebbly’ appearance. A light-coloured bar or triangle between the eyes and snout is common, a dark broken line extends from the tip of the snout along the eye to the end of the head. The head does not exhibit a tympanum (ear) and the pupil is vertical. Outermost toes on the hind feet are flattened and wide. This species does not have an ability to vocalize like other frog species. Tadpoles range from brownish-grey to reddish-brown or black and are up to 3 cm long prior to metamorphosis. In some populations (e.g. US), the tail has a white tip. The tail is laterally compressed to provide streamlining in fast flows. Tailed Frog tadpoles have suction like mouth parts with rows of teeth on the top and bottom, allowing them to anchor to rocks (and other surfaces) in fast flowing water. The “tail” appendage is an adaptation to reproduction in fast flowing water, directing sperm into the female and reducing sperm loss during breeding.
Ascaphus Consulting. 2003. [Internet] Watershed-level Protection and Management Measures for the Maintenance of Ascaphus Truei Populations in the Skeena Region. -
Ascaphus Consulting. 2006. [Internet] Wildlife Habitat Area Effectiveness Evaluations Protocol for conducting routine and extensive effectiveness evaluations for Rocky Mountain Tailed Frog wildlife habitat areas. Version 2. -
B.C. Conservation Data Centre. [Internet] [Updated December 15 2010] Conservation Status Report: Ascaphus truei.
B.C. MoE. - Cannings, S.G. et al 1999. [Internet] Rare amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of British Columbia. Coastal Tailed Frog Ascaphus truei Wildl. Branch and Resour. Inv. Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. 198pp. -
Claussen, D.L. 1973a. The thermal relations of the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, and the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 44A: 137-153. 1973b. The water relations of the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, and the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 44A: 155-171. -
Daugherty, C.H. and A.L. Sheldon. 1982a. Age-determination, growth and life history of a Montana population of the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei). Herpetologica 38: 461-468.. 1982b. Age-specific movement patterns of the frog Ascaphus truei. Herpetologica 38: 469-474. -
deVlaming, V.L. and R.B. Bury. 1970. Thermal selection in tadpoles of the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei. J. Herpetology 4: 179-189. -
Dupuis, L.A., P.A. Friele, and F.L. Bunnell. 2000. [Internet] Determinants of the tailed frog's range in British Columbia, Canada. Northwest Science 74: 109-115. -
Dupuis, L.A. and D. Steventon. 1999. [Internet] Riparian management and the tailed frog in northern coastal forests. Forest Ecol. Manage. 124: 35-43. -
Dupuis, L. 2004. [Internet] Accounts and Measures for Managing Identified Wildlife – Accounts V. 2004. Coastal Tailed Frog Ascaphus truei
Germano, J.M. and P.J. Bishop. 2008. [Internet] Suitability of Amphibians and Reptiles for Translocation. Conservation Biology 23: 7-15. -
Heyer, W.R., et al. 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity. Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. -
Horn, H.L. et al. 2009. [Internet]. Parts 1-3 EBM Working Group Focal Species Project. Reports 1-3: of the EBM Working Group Focal Species. - Landreth, H.F. and D.E. Ferguson. 1967. Movements and orientation of the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei. Herpetologica 23: 81-93. -
Matsuda, B.M. 2001. [Internet] [Internet] The effects of clear-cut timber harvest on the movement patterns of tailed frogs (Ascaphus truei) in southwestern British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. -
Matsuda, B.M., D.M. Green, and P.T. Gregory. 2006. Amphibians and Reptiles of British Columbia. Royal BC Museum, Victoria, BC. -
Matsuda, B.M. and J.S. Richardson. 2005. [Internet] Movement patterns and relative abundance of coastal tailed frogs in clearcuts and mature forest stands. Can. J. For. Res. 35: 1131-1138. -
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. 2000. [Internet]. Inventory Methods for Tailed Frogs and Pacific Giant Salamanders (Version 2.0) for Components of British Columbia’s Biodiversity No.39. -
Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Univ. of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID. -
Ovaska, K, S. Lennart, C Engelstoft, L. Matthias, E. Wind and J. MacGarvie. 2004. [Internet] Best Management Practices for Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban and Rural Environments in British Columbia. Ministry of Water Land and Air Protection, Ecosystems Standards and Planning, Biodiversity Branch. -
Proulx, Gilbert et al. 2003. A Field Guide to Species at Risk in the Coast Forest Region of British Columbia. Published by International Forest Products and BC Ministry of Environment. Victoria (BC). -
Richardson, J.S. and W.E. Neill. 1998. [Internet] Headwater amphibians and forestry in British Columbia: Pacific giant salamanders and tailed frogs. Northwest Science 72: 122-123. -
Sutherland, G.D. 2000. [Internet] Risk assessment for conservation under ecological uncertainty: a case study using stream-dwelling amphibians in managed forests. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. -
Wahbe, Tanya R. 2000. [Internet] Defining Wildlife Habitat Areas for Tailed Frogs. Proceedings of a Conference on the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15 - 19 Feb., 1999. Volume Two. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C. and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, B.C. 520pp. -
Warttig, Warren. 2010. [Personal comm.]. -
Welsh, H.H. 1990. [Internet] Relictual amphibians and old-growth forests. Cons. Biol. 4: 309-319. -
Welsh, H.H. and L.M. Ollivier. 1998. [Internet] Stream amphibians as indicators of ecosystem stress: a case from California's Redwoods. Ecol. Appl. 8:1118-1132. -
Zevit, Pamela. 1997 and 2001. [Unpublished] Inventory of Pinnacle Creek and its tributaries in Southwest Coquitlam BC. Ministry of Environment Lands and Parks.
Zevit, Pamela. 1995-1996. [Personal obs]. Ministry of Environment Lands and Parks inventory, Coquihalla, Big Silver and Chilliwack watersheds.
"Species Profile prepared by: Pamela Zevit of Adamah Consultants with Brent Matsuda for the South Coast Conservation Program (SCCP) in partnership with: International Forest Products (Interfor), Capacity Forestry (CapFor). Original funding for this factsheet was made possible through the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI): http://www.sfiprogram.org/
Updated and revised by: Isabelle Houde, RPBio in consultation with the SCCP. Part of the National Conservation Plan, this project was undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada. Dans le cadre du Plan de Conservation National, ce projet a été réalisé avec l'appui financier du Gouvernement du Canada.
Every effort has been made to ensure content accuracy. Comments or corrections should be directed to the South Coast Conservation Program: firstname.lastname@example.org. Content updated March 2015. Image Credits: Pacific Tailed Frog: Garth Hodgson US Forest Service, Pacific Tailed Frog head close-up: Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife, Pacific Tailed Frog tadpole: Brian Klinkenberg, Western Toad juvenile: Walter Seigmund Wikipedia, Habitat: Pamela Zevit, Northern Red-legged Frog: Gord Gadsden. All other images have been contributed for use by the SCCP and its partners/funders only."